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Faculty Biography - Honors and Awards, Publications, Professional Experience
Don Trent (Four Arrows) Jacobs
Don Trent (Four Arrows) Jacobs, PhD
Doctoral Faculty - School of Educational Leadership & Change
Sequim, WA

EdD, Curriculum and Instruction, Boise State University
PhD, Health Psychology, Columbia Pacific University
MA, Health Care Administration, Golden Gate University/CPU California 7-12 Teaching Certificate, Dominican College University South Dakota Superintendent Endorsement, Oglala Lakota College
BS, Economics, Southwest Missouri State University

Scholarly & Professional Interests:

  • Contrasting Indigenous ways of knowing with Western ones
  • Counter-hegemonic education
  • Peace and Justice issues
  • Ecological justice and sustainability


Professional Memberships:

  • American Indian Congress
  • National Indian Education Association
  • Alternative Education Resource Organization


Honors and Awards:

  • Martin Springer Institute Moral Courage Award
  • Top 27 AERO Visionary Educators



  • Four Arrows (under contract), The Neuropsychology of Indigenous Wisdom. Netherlands: Sense Publishers
  • Four Arrows, Jacobs, (November, 2008) Don Trent. The Authentic Dissertation.: Alternative ways of knowing, research and representation. London: Routledge
  • Four Arrows (in press) Healing Communication for the Sick and Injured: The People and the Planet. Boston: Jones and Bartlett
  • Four Arrows. (2006) The Shrimp Habit: How it is Destroying Our World. Victoria: Trafford.
  • Four Arrows,Jacobs, Don Trent., Ed., 2006 Unlearning the Language of Conquest: Scholars Challenge Anti-Indianism in America,Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Four Arrows and Fetzer, J. (2004) American Assassination: The Strange Death of Senator Paul Wellstone. New York: Vox Pop.
  • Jacobs, D. and Jacobs-Spencer, J. (2001) Teaching Virtues: Building Character Across the Curriculum. Landham, Md.: Scarecrow Education Press, a division of Roman and Littlefield.
  • Jacobs, D. (1997) Primal Awareness: A True Story of Survival, Transformation and Awakening with the Raramuri Shamans of Mexico. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions International.
  • Jacobs, D. (1994 ) The Bum's Rush: The Selling of Environmental Backlash. Boise, Id.: Legendary Publishing.
  • Jacobs, D. (1988) Patient Communication for First Responders: The First Hour of Trauma. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
  • Jacobs, D. (1988) Physical Fitness Programs for Public Safety Employees, 2nd edition, Boston: NFPA.
  • Jacobs, D. (1981) Getting Your Executive Fit (Effective Organization of Fitness Programs for Business and Industry). Mountain View, Ca.: World Publications.
  • Jacobs, D. (1981) Happy Exercise: An Adventure Into the World of Fitness for Children. Mountain View, Ca.: World Publications.
  • Jacobs, D. (1981) Physical Fitness Programs for Public Safety Employees, 1st edition, Boston, Ma.: NFPA.
  • Jacobs, D. (1978) Ride and Tie: The Challenge of Running and Riding (1978). Mountain View, Ca.: World Publications.
  • Jacobs, D. (1976) Physical Fitness and the Fire Service, Boston, Ma.: National Fire Protection Association.

Book Chapters

  • Four Arrows (2014). The heart of Everything that Isn't. The Untold Story of Anti-Indianism in Drury and Clavin's Book on Red Cloud. Published in The Springer, September 21, 2014.
  • Four Arrows (in press). "Hegemonic barriers to the American EdD" in Stead, V. (Vol.Ed.) The education doctorate (Ed.D.): Issues of access, diversity, social justice and community leadership.  In V. Stead (Series Ed) Higher education theory, policy, and praxis, Vol. 5. New York: Peter Lang.
  • Four Arrows (2014, Sept.) ""False Doctrine." The Influence of Christianity on the Failure of Indigenous Political Will" in Critical Education Vol.5, No. 13.
  • Four Arrows (2014) "Resistance at the Roots: Indigenizing Mainstream Education to End Neoliberal Violence" in (eds) Abendroth, Mark, and Porfilio, Brad, School Against Neoliberal Rule: Educational Fronts for local and Global Justice: A Reader. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
  • "Teaching Truly the Indigenous Story" (2014) in The Social Studies Curriculum: Purposes, Problems, and Possibilities, edited by E. Wayne Ross, New York: State University of New York (SUNY) Press.
  • Four Arrows (in press) "Experience as Immersion" in The View from the Ground, EDS. Jamie Moran.
  • Four Arrows (Feb 2008) "Reading, Writing and Counter-Recruiting" in At Issue: Military Recruiters, (AIMR) scheduled to be released in the fourth quarter, 2007. AIMR, with 112 pages, will be published by Gale, ( ), a provider of high quality educational and reference materials to libraries.
  • Four Arrows (in press). "Towers of Deception: An Indigenous Perspective on Terrorism in a Post-9/11 World" in The Soul of the World. Carin Carrington, Susan Griffen and Howard Teich (eds). Berkeley: University
    of California Press. Other authors include Fred Wolf, Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., etc.
  • Four Arrows (in production) "The Character Education Controversy" in Battleground Schools: An Encyclopedia of Conflict and Controversy, Sandra Mathison & E. Wayne Ross (eds), Westport, CT: Greenwood/Praeger
  • Four Arrows (2006) Four Arrows (2006) "War Games: Bizarre Coincidence or Something Else" in 9/11 and Political Economy. Amsterdam: Elseviere Science..
  • Four Arrows (2006) "Character Education as a Neo-Liberal Undertaking" in Knowledge and Power in the Global Economy, 2nd Edition, David Gabbard Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
  • Four Arrows (2005) "Plight of the Raramuri" in Echoes from the Poisoned Well: Global Memories of Environmental Injustice, Ed. by Paul C. Rosier, Ph.D.Department of History Landham: Roman and Littlefield.
  • Four Arrows-(2007) "Indigenous Worldviews and Values," "The Myth of the Nobel Savage," and "Social Control and American Indians". In The Encyclopedia of American Indian History. Ed. Steve Danforth and Bruce Johansen. Los Angeles: ABC-CIO.
  • Four Arrows-Jacobs, D. (2004) "Character Education: Coming Full Circle," in Defending Public Schools-The Curriculum, ed by E.Wayne Ross, Praeger/Greenwood Publishers.
  • Four Arrows-Jacobs, D. (2004) "Way of the Brave" in Educating for Humanity, Heritage Institute, Seattle (other authors include Parker Palmer, Nel Noddings, Herb Kohl, Debbie Meier, Fritzoff Capra, Thomas Berry, Rachael Kessler and Chip Wood.)
  • Jacobs, D. (2003) "Forced Hegemony: Warnings and Solutions from Indian Country," In Gabbard, D. (Ed.) Education as Enforcement: The Militarization and Corporatization of Schooling,. New York: RoutledgeFalmer,
    2003 (Other authors include Noam Chomsky, Michael Apple, Henry Giroux, etc.
  • Jacobs, D (2002), "Virtue Based Curriculum: The Process," in Tom Allen's Creating Sacred Places, National Indian School Board Association, Washington, D.C.
  • Jacobs, D. (1999) Shamanic Initiation. In Millman, D. and Childers, D. Divine Interventions: True Stories of Mystery and Miracles That Change Lives. Emmaus, Penn.: Daybreak Books.
  • Jacobs, D. (2005) A Reservation Perspective in Militarism In Education, published by Center for Critical Pedagogy, Tel Aviv


  • Professional Journal Articles (representative)
  • Jacobs, D. (in press) Way of the Brave in ORBIT-OISE/UT's Magazine for Schools, Character Education Theme Issue, Canada
  • Jacobs, D. (in press) The Seventh What? In Paths of Learning, Issue 15
  • Jacobs, D. (June, 2002) Teacher-Parent Partnerships: Making Community Education Real for Indigenous Families in Issues in Indigenous Bilingual Education.
  • Jacobs, D. (2002) Stepping Stones and World Views in Paths of Learning, Issue 10.
  • Jacobs, D. (2002) Coming Out of Trance in Paths of Learning, Issue 11.
  • Jacobs, D. (2002) Spirituality in Education: A Matter of Significance for American Indian Cultures. Paths of Learning, Issue 9.
  • Jacobs, D., Reyhner, J., Atleo, E., Leech, D. and Martin, J. (in press) An American Indian Perspective on Character Education. In Smith, D. (Ed.) American Indian Culture.
  • Jacobs, D. & Reyhner, J. (Jan, 2002) Preparing Teachers to Support American Indian and Alaskan Native Student Success (ERIC Digest) Charleston, WV: ERIC Clearinghouse for Rural Education and Small Schools.
  • Jacobs, D. (August, 2002) Preparing Teachers to Support American Indian and Alaskan Native Student Success in ERIC Digest, Charleston, WV: ERIC Clearinghouse for Rural Education and Small Schools.
  • Jacobs, D. and Chief Eagle, Dallas (in press) Addressing Behavior Issues in American Indian and Alaskan Native Education, ERIC Digest.
  • Jacobs, D. (in press) How Schools Can Heal Native American Communities in ERIC Digest.
  • Jacobs, D. (Spring 2001) On Being Indian. Red Ink. Journal of the American Indian Studies Program, University of Arizona. 13. Jacobs, D. (2001) The Red Road: The Indigenous Worldview as a Prerequisite for Effective Character Education. Paths of Learning.
  • Jacobs, D. (2001) The Indigenous Worldview as a Prerequisite for Effective Civic Learning in Higher Education. Journal of College and Character, Vol. 2.
  • Jacobs, D. (1996) Mining the Gold. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems. Vol. 4, Issue 4.
  • Jacobs, D. (1996) The Red Flags of Persuasion. ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 52, No. 2.
  • Jacobs, D. (1994) Focus on the Positive: The Language of Treatment for Youth Who Have Sexually Offended. Caring (Journal of the National Association of Services for Children), Vol. X, No 2.
  • Jacobs, D. (1994) Lost Youth or Criminals: The Contrasting Views of Brendtro and Samenow. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems.
  • Jacobs, D. (1989) Healing Words. Journal of Wilderness First Aid.
  • Jacobs, D. (1989) Healing Words. American Survival Guide. 21. Jacobs, D. (1988) Hypnosis for Medical Emergencies in the Wilderness. Response. Journal of the National Association for Search and Rescue. Vol. 7, #4.
  • Jacobs, D. (1987) Altered States. Emergency. The Journal of the Emergency Medical Services.
  • Jacobs, D. (1987) Alarm Stress. Fire Command.
  • Jacobs, D. (1987) Vital Aid for Emergencies. California Fireman.
  • Jacobs, D. (1984) Emergency Hypnosis. Emergency Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1982) Happy Exercise: An Effective Approach to Health Education for Children. Journal of Humanistic Education and Development.
  • Jacobs D. (1980) Opening Doors to Fitness. The Journal of Physical Education.

Miscellaneous Publications (non-scholarly but educational)

  • Jacobs, D. (2001) It's Time for a Non-Violent Revolution on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. Native Cultures Online Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (2001) Dance of Deception. Mother Jones Magazine on Line.
  • Jacobs, D. and Broydo, Leora. (2001) USSD: The Drug War Comes to the Rez. MoJo Wire.
  • Jacobs, D. (1998) Words Can Control You If You Let Them. Truth Seeker Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1995) The Connection (Between Horses and At-Risk Youth) Trail Blazer Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1992) Old Number Seven. Western Horse Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1989) Rebel. Western Horse Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1988) Head Doctor. Backpacker Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1987) Communicating with Horses. Sport Horse Magazine. (Note: As senior contributing editor for Horseman Magazine, I wrote more than 50 articles. The following are examples.)
  • Jacobs, D. (1991) Olympics Bound. Horseman Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1989) Little Can Go a Long Way. Horseman Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1988) The Challenged Horseman. Horseman Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1988) Smoke. Horseman Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1988) Smokey and the Bandit. Horseman Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1988) Endurance Riding and Politics. Horseman Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1986-1988) "Sharing Time Brings Closeness" in Marin Independent Journal is one of many examples of a series of relationship articles in this town's newspaper from 1986-1988.
  • Jacobs, D. (1987) Mirror, Mirror in the Stall. Horseman Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1987) A Safe Landing. Horseman Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1986) Wild Horse Wrangler. Horseman Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1986) Calm Training for a Wild Mustang Horseman. Horseman Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1986) Powers of Endurance. Horseman Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1986) Shoeing the Endurance Horse. Horseman Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1986) Not a Bit. Horseman Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1985) Riding in the Mind's Eye Horseman Magazine.
  • Jacobs, D. (1985) Ten Pacing Tactics for Endurance Riding. Horseman Magazine.

Keynote Addresses, speeches, workshop presentations and papers presented at professional conferences

  • August 11, 2008. Invited Presentation at International Democratic Education Conference, "Indigenous Education as the Ultimate Model for Democratic Education" University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
  • September 13, 2007 Invited keynote at STAR Conference, "From Stereotypes to Reality" at Fon Du Lack Reservation Ojibwe School for Phelps Stokes Fund.
  • September 14, 2007. Invited Presentation: Spirit and Nature Conference.
  • Invited request to present at "Spirituality and Education Network Summit: "Reclaiming Wholeness: Welcoming an Integrative Vision and Transformative Practice in Education." Serra Retreat Center, Malibu, California. March 26-30, 2007
  • Invited request to present at "One Earth Community: Sharing Our Stories: 2nd Spirit Matters Gathering. University of Toronto, The Transformative Learning Centre. April 20-22, 2007
  • University of Arizona poster session at International Consciousness Studies Conference, Tucson, April 5, 2006
  • Onion Lake Education Council: Keynote for Education Workshop, August 24, 2005
  • Treaty Four Tribal Council Educational Conference: April 21,2005: Canada. Keynote on Indian Education.
  • Finders Keepers Conference: Keynote; Sasaktoon,Canada. The Indigenous Factor and Hiring Aboriginals ;Feb. 17, 2005

* The Urban First Nations: Workshop presentation on creating a connection between wordviews and teaching virtues,address the roles of spirituality and community parents involvement in holistic education. Regina , SK August 27, 2004

* Six International Annual Gathering of the Native Nations: Puerto Rico, San Juan , April 24-30, 2004

  • Tohono O'odham Community College Institute July 8-9, Tucson.
  • Winslow Wellness Conference. May 19. Keynote
  • "Indigenous Worldviews" .Keynote. The Urban First Nations: August 27, 2004. Dr Jacobs, Four Arrows, will present a workshop on creating a connection between wordviews and teaching virtues,address the roles of spirituality and community parents involvement in holistic education. Regina, SK
  • Sixth International Annual Gathering of the Native Nations: Puerto Rico, San Juan , April 24-30, 2004
  • North Coast Education Summit: Humbolt State University, Feb 6-8,2004: EDUCATIONAL HEGEMONY: WHAT YOU DON'T KNOW WILL HURT ALL OF US From textbook censorship and corporate sponsored educational research to "common sense" media and subtle controls in higher education, the violence that we DO to children stems from the ideas that we BELIEVE. In this interactive conversation, examples Columbus and Helen Keller to phonics and environmental education will be exposed to help us all tune in to the deception in educational arenas. (#167)
  • Teaching for What? (Invited Presentation) for Tenth Annual Conference on College Teaching and Learning, Ashland, Kentucky, October 9-12, 2002
  • A Matter of Significance. (Keynote) National Coalition of Alternative Community Schools National Conference. May 9, 2002.
  • Title of Presentation: The Case for the Inclusion of an Indigenous Perspective in Character Education in session titled Culturally Responsive Indigenous Education Research: Multiple Perspectives. (co-presenter) Presented at AERA: American Education Research Association, New Orleans, LA. April 5, 2002.
  • Keynote: What Do We Value? Challenge to High Stakes Testing in Indian Country, Hopi ,Navajo and Hawaii School Board Members Conference on Standards. Flagstaff, AZ, April 1, 2002. Native American Grant School's Conference Association.
  • Featured Speaker at International Conference on College Teaching and Learning. Jacksonville , FL. April 10, 2002. Keynote at National Coalition of Alternative Community Schools: May 9. 2002, Yellow Springs, OH. Antioch College.
  • "On Critical Thinking," presentation at Fielding Graduate Institute, Oct., 10, 2003, Santa Barbara, California.
  • Keynote at Character Education Through the Arts Conference, May 10, 2003, Atlanta, Georgia.
  • Invited Workshop Presentation on Primal Awareness, Denver Cluster, Fielding Graduate Institute, April 5, 2003.
  • Invited:14 workshops in 9 cities throughout Japan on Native American Perspectives on Alternative Education, May 18 through June 1st, 2003, sponsored by Global University
  • Invited presentation, "Hegemony in Social Studies," Anti-oppressive Education Conference, June 13, 2003 sponsored by Center for Anti-Oppressive Education, San Francisco, California
  • Invited presentations: "Cooperative Argumentation in the Social Studies Classroom," "Spirituality in Education," "On Character Education," three presentations accepted for national conference on democratic education, Humboldt State University on February 9, 2003
  • "Spirituality in Education," AERA, April 24, 2003, Chicago, Ill.
  • Education as Enforcement, AERA April 25, 2003, Chicago, Ill.
  • American Indian Spirituality, AERA Conference, New Orleans, April 2002
  • Teaching for What? (Invited Presentation) for Tenth Annual Conference on College Teaching and Learning, Ashland, Kentucky, October 9-12, 2002.
  • What Do We Value? Hopi (Invited keynote) Navajo and Hawaii School Board Members Conference on Standards. Flagstaff, AZ, April 1, 2002. Native American Grant School's Conference Association.
  • A Matter of Significance. (Keynote) National Coalition of Alternative Community Schools National Conference. May 9, 2002.
  • The Case for the Inclusion of an Indigenous Perspective in Character Education in session titled Culturally Responsive Indigenous Education Research: Multiple Perspectives. (co-presenter) AERA Annual Meeting, New Orleans, April, 2002.
  • Walking in Thorny Places (co-presenter) American Educational Studies Association Annual Conference, Miami, Florida, November 2, 2001
  • Primal Awareness for Democratic Education. (workshop)2nd International Soul in Education Conference. Kauai, October 7, 2001.
  • Tribal College Leads the Way in Integrating Character Education for Teaching Preparation. (Paper) 2nd Annual Modern Native American Conference: Thoughts from the Past and Paths Toward the Future, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, August 15-17, 2001.
  • A Model for Character Education. (workshop director) Taos Day School, July 2001.
  • Radical Integration: An American Indian Approach to Character Education, Presented at: Character Plus National Conference for Cooperating School Districts, St. Louis, Missouri, July 13, 2001.
  • Colonizing Education. (Plenary) The Second Annual Conference on Militarism in Education Kibbutzim College of Education , Tel Aviv, Israel, April 29, 2001.
  • Teaching Virtues Across the Curriculum: An American Indian Perspective. (featured speaker) Presented at: the 12th International Conference on College Teaching and Learning, at Jacksonville, Florida, April 17-20, 2001.
  • A Matter of Significance. 13th Annual International Conference on College Teaching and Learning (featured speaker), Jacksonville, Florida, April 10th, 2001.
  • Teaching Virtues, Keenan Institute for Ethics at Duke University, invited speaker, May 12, 2001
  • Tribal Colleges as National Leaders in Character Education. (keynote) Presented at: Heart in Education Conference, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, March 2, 2001.
  • New Life for an Ancient Way. (Paper) Presented at: National Association of Native American Studies, Houston, Texas, February 15, 2001.
  • The Red Road: An Indigenous Perspective on Higher Education.(Plenary) Presented at: Florida State University at the College Values Institute Conference, Tallahassee, Florida, February 9, 2001.
  • A Different Interpretation of Quality: A Challenge to Title II presented at: South Dakota Association of Colleges of Teacher Preparation, Pierre, South Dakota, January 5, 2001.
  • Panel Participant. John Dewey Progressive Educational Summit. 2000.
  • Character Education not Conformity. (paper) University of San Diego Character Education Conference. June 25, 2000.
  • New Life for an Ancient Way: Remembering Who We Are. Presented at: Principles of Ethics for Tribal Officials and Personnel, Rapid City, South Dakota, April 5 & 6, 2000.
  • Tribal Colleges as National Leaders in Character Education (keynote). Presented at: the American Indian Higher Education Conference, Cloquest, Minnesota, March 24, 2000.
  • Teaching Virtues. Keenan Institute on Character Education. Duke University, March 12 , 1999.
  • Primal Awareness. (workshop) Esalen. December, 1998.
  • Critical Pedagogy and Spiritual Dialogue: The Missing Partnership. (Paper) Pedagogy of the Oppressed Conference. University of Nebraska at Omaha, April 18, 1997.
  • The CAT-FAWN Connection. (Plenary) Fairchild Lecture Series. April 7, 1997.
  • Re-Education of Spirit for the Wellness of Self and Society. Wellness Conference in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, March 2, 1997.
  • The Bum's Rush. (featured speaker) Idaho Wildlife Federation. May 6, 1995.
  • The Power of Words. Snake River Alliance. (Keynote) April 14, 1995.
  • The Selling of Environmental Backlash (keynote). National Wildlife Federation Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., March 20, 1995.
  • Positive Peer Culture. (workshop) National Association of Peer Group Agencies. Coal Valley, Illinois, October, 1994.
  • The First Communication: The Key to Effective Management. International Conference on Pre-Hospital Emergency Care. (Keynote) Brisbane, Australia. October 22, 1992.
  • Patient Communication. (Keynote) NCSCH. Bali, October 9, 1992.
  • Emergency Hypnosis. (workshop) Maricopa Hospital, Phoenix. April 13, 1992.
  • Healing Words. (featured speaker) JEMS 10th Anniversary EMS Today Conference. Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 12, 1992.
  • I also presented a number of workshops for hospital and EMS staff around the country on patient communication. 1988-1990.
  • Organizing Fitness Programs in Business and Industry. (workshop) University of California, Irvine. March, 1981; Dominican College, July 1981, Farmers Insurance, Nov., 1982.
  • Fitness in the Fire Service. (numerous workshops presented in 1981 and 1982) Santa Barbara Fire Department, Modesto Fire Department, sparks Fire Department, San Anselmo Fire Department, Fairfax Fire Department, San Francisco Fire Department, San Jose Fire Department, Phoenix Fire Department, Los Angeles Fire department, Sausalito Fire Department, San Ramon Fire Department, Marin County Fire Department et al.

    Documentary Appearances

  • (2006) FOUR ARROWS: JULIAN JAYNES: hypnosis & the exploitation of the vestigial bicameral mind: Snowshoe Films:
  • (1997) The Sacred Hunt. A Film by Randall Eaton, Ph.D.
  • (1994) Half Lives. Carolyn Jourdan, Director of The Nuclear Waste Documentary Project.

    Video Productions

  • Jacobs, D. (1999) The Shaman's Message. (self-produced).
  • Jacobs, D. (1992) Hypnosis for Medical Emergencies. Glendale, Ca.: H.T.I.

Professional Experience:

  • Dean of Education, Oglala Lakota College
  • Associate Professor, College of Education, Northern Arizona University
  • Instructor, Secondary Ed/Foundations , Boise State University � Director, Idaho Youth Ranch Residential School, Main Campus, Rupert, Id.
  • Counselor, Adolescent Specialty, Hope Counseling Services, Petaluma, Ca.
  • Adjunct professor, Columbia Pacific University, San Rafael, Ca. � Lecturer, University of California, Berkeley
  • Author and lecturer
  • Public school teacher, grades 7-12
  • U.S. Marine Corps Officer, Viet Nam era
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